pgr_bellmanFord - Experimental

pgr_bellmanFord — Shortest path(s) using Bellman-Ford algorithm.

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Adentro: Boost Graph

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Advertencia

Funciones experimentales

  • No son oficialmente de la versión actual.

  • Es probable que oficialmente no formen parte de la siguiente versión:

    • Las funciones no podrían hacer uso de ANY-INTEGER ni ANY-NUMERICAL

    • El nombre puede cambiar.

    • La firma (declaración de funciones) podría cambiar.

    • La funcionalidad puede cambiar.

    • Las pruebas de pgTap pueden estar ausentes.

    • Posiblemente necesite codificación c/c++.

    • Puede haber carencia de documentación.

    • Hay documentación que, en dado caso, podría ser necesario reescribir.

    • Ejemplos de documentación que puede ser necesario generar automáticamente.

    • Puede ser necesaria más retroalimentación por parte de la comunidad.

    • Puede depender de una función propuesta de pgRouting

    • Podría depender de una función obsoleta de pgRouting

Disponibilidad

Descripción

Bellman-Ford’s algorithm, is named after Richard Bellman and Lester Ford, who first published it in 1958 and 1956, respectively.It is a graph search algorithm that computes shortest paths from a starting vertex (start_vid) to an ending vertex (end_vid) in a graph where some of the edge weights may be negative. Though it is more versatile, it is slower than Dijkstra’s algorithm.This implementation can be used with a directed graph and an undirected graph.

The main characteristics are:
  • El proceso es válido para aristas con grosores de arista positivos y negativos.

  • Valores son regresados cuando hay una ruta.

    • When the start vertex and the end vertex are the same, there is no path. The agg_cost would be \(0\).

    • Cuando el vértice inicial y el vértice final son diferentes, y existe una ruta entre ellos sin tener un ciclo negativo. El agg_cost sería un valor finito que indica la distancia más corta entre ellos.

    • Cuando el vértice inicial y el vértice final son diferentes y existe una ruta entre ellos, pero contiene un ciclo negativo. En tal caso, agg_cost para esos vértices siguen disminuyendo además, por lo tanto agg_cost no se puede definir para ellos.

    • Cuando el vértice inicial y el vértice final son diferentes y no hay ruta. El agg_cost es \(\infty\).

  • Para fines de optimización, se omite cualquier valor duplicado en start_vids o end_vids.

  • Los valores regresados se ordenan:

    • start_vid ascendente

    • end_vid ascendente

  • Tiempo de ejecución \(O(| start\_vids | * ( V * E))\)

Firmas

Resumen

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vid, end vid  [, directed])
pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vid, end vids [, directed])
pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vids, end vid  [, directed])
pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vids, end vids [, directed])
pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, Combinations SQL [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq [, start_vid] [, end_vid], node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET

Uno a Uno

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vid,  end vid  [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq, node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET
Ejemplo:

From vertex \(6\) to vertex \(10\) on a directed graph

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  6, 10, true);
 seq | path_seq | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        4
   6 |        6 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        5
(6 rows)

One to Many

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vid,  end vids [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq, end_vid, node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET
Ejemplo:

From vertex \(6\) to vertices \(\{ 10, 17\}\) on a directed graph

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  6, ARRAY[10, 17]);
 seq | path_seq | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |      10 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |      10 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |      10 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |      10 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        4
   6 |        6 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        5
   7 |        1 |      17 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   8 |        2 |      17 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
   9 |        3 |      17 |   11 |   11 |    1 |        2
  10 |        4 |      17 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        3
  11 |        5 |      17 |   17 |   -1 |    0 |        4
(11 rows)

Muchos a Uno

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vids, end vid  [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq, start_vid, node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET
Ejemplo:

From vertices \(\{6, 1\}\) to vertex \(17\) on a directed graph

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  ARRAY[6, 1], 17);
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         1 |    1 |    6 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         1 |    3 |    7 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |         1 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |         1 |   11 |   11 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |         1 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        4
   6 |        6 |         1 |   17 |   -1 |    0 |        5
   7 |        1 |         6 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   8 |        2 |         6 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
   9 |        3 |         6 |   11 |   11 |    1 |        2
  10 |        4 |         6 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        3
  11 |        5 |         6 |   17 |   -1 |    0 |        4
(11 rows)

Muchos a Muchos

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, start vids, end vids [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq, start_vid, end_vid, node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET
Ejemplo:

From vertices \(\{6, 1\}\) to vertices \(\{10, 17\}\) on an undirected graph

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  ARRAY[6, 1], ARRAY[10, 17],
  directed => false);
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         1 |      10 |    1 |    6 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         1 |      10 |    3 |    7 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |         1 |      10 |    7 |    4 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |         1 |      10 |    6 |    2 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |         1 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        4
   6 |        1 |         1 |      17 |    1 |    6 |    1 |        0
   7 |        2 |         1 |      17 |    3 |    7 |    1 |        1
   8 |        3 |         1 |      17 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        2
   9 |        4 |         1 |      17 |   11 |   11 |    1 |        3
  10 |        5 |         1 |      17 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        4
  11 |        6 |         1 |      17 |   17 |   -1 |    0 |        5
  12 |        1 |         6 |      10 |    6 |    2 |    1 |        0
  13 |        2 |         6 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        1
  14 |        1 |         6 |      17 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
  15 |        2 |         6 |      17 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
  16 |        3 |         6 |      17 |   11 |   11 |    1 |        2
  17 |        4 |         6 |      17 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        3
  18 |        5 |         6 |      17 |   17 |   -1 |    0 |        4
(18 rows)

Combinaciones

pgr_bellmanFord(Edges SQL, Combinations SQL [, directed])
RETURNS (seq, path_seq, start_vid, end_vid, node, edge, cost, agg_cost)
OR EMPTY SET
Ejemplo:

Uso de una tabla de combinaciones en un grafo no dirigido.

The combinations table:

SELECT source, target FROM combinations;
 source | target
--------+--------
      5 |      6
      5 |     10
      6 |      5
      6 |     15
      6 |     14
(5 rows)

The query:

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  'SELECT source, target FROM combinations',
  false);
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         5 |       6 |    5 |    1 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         5 |       6 |    6 |   -1 |    0 |        1
   3 |        1 |         5 |      10 |    5 |    1 |    1 |        0
   4 |        2 |         5 |      10 |    6 |    2 |    1 |        1
   5 |        3 |         5 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        2
   6 |        1 |         6 |       5 |    6 |    1 |    1 |        0
   7 |        2 |         6 |       5 |    5 |   -1 |    0 |        1
   8 |        1 |         6 |      15 |    6 |    2 |    1 |        0
   9 |        2 |         6 |      15 |   10 |    3 |    1 |        1
  10 |        3 |         6 |      15 |   15 |   -1 |    0 |        2
(10 rows)

Parámetros

Columna

Tipo

Descripción

Edges SQL

TEXT

Edges SQL as described below

Combinations SQL

TEXT

Combinations SQL as described below

start vid

BIGINT

Identificador del vértice inicial de la ruta.

start vids

ARRAY[BIGINT]

Arreglo de identificadores de vértices iniciales.

end vid

BIGINT

Identificador del vértice final de la ruta.

end vids

ARRAY[BIGINT]

Arreglo de identificadores de vértices finales.

Optional parameters

Columna

Tipo

x Defecto

Descripción

directed

BOOLEAN

true

  • When true the graph is considered Directed

  • Cuando false el gráfo se considera No Dirigido.

Consultas Internas

Edges SQL

Columna

Tipo

x Defecto

Descripción

id

ANY-INTEGER

Identificador de la arista.

source

ANY-INTEGER

Identificador del primer vértice de la arista.

target

ANY-INTEGER

Identificador del segundo vértice de la arista.

cost

ANY-NUMERICAL

Weight of the edge (source, target)

reverse_cost

ANY-NUMERICAL

-1

Weight of the edge (target, source)

  • When negative: edge (target, source) does not exist, therefore it’s not part of the graph.

Donde:

ENTEROS:

SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT

FLOTANTES:

SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT, REAL, FLOAT

Combinations SQL

Parámetro

Tipo

Descripción

source

ANY-INTEGER

Identifier of the departure vertex.

target

ANY-INTEGER

Identifier of the arrival vertex.

Donde:

ENTEROS:

SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT

Return columns

Devuelve el conjunto de (seq, path_seq [, start_vid] [, end_vid], node, edge, cost, agg_cost)

Columna

Tipo

Descripción

seq

INTEGER

Valor secuencial a partir de 1.

path_seq

INTEGER

Posición relativa en la ruta. Tiene el valor 1 para el principio de una ruta.

start_vid

BIGINT

Identificador del vértice inicial. Se devuelve cuando hay varias vetrices iniciales en la consulta.

end_vid

BIGINT

Identificador del vértice final. Se devuelve cuando hay varios vértices finales en la consulta.

node

BIGINT

Identificador del nodo en la ruta de start_vid a end_vid.

edge

BIGINT

Identifier of the edge used to go from node to the next node in the path sequence. -1 for the last node of the path.

cost

FLOAT

Costo del desplazamiento desde node usando `` edge`` hasta el siguiente nodo en la secuencia de ruta.

agg_cost

FLOAT

Aggregate cost from start_vid to node.

Additional Examples

Example 1:

Demonstration of repeated values are ignored, and result is sorted.

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  ARRAY[7, 10, 15, 10, 10, 15], ARRAY[10, 7, 10, 15]);
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         7 |      10 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         7 |      10 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |         7 |      10 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |         7 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |         7 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        4
   6 |        1 |         7 |      15 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        0
   7 |        2 |         7 |      15 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
   8 |        3 |         7 |      15 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
   9 |        4 |         7 |      15 |   15 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  10 |        1 |        10 |       7 |   10 |    5 |    1 |        0
  11 |        2 |        10 |       7 |   11 |    8 |    1 |        1
  12 |        3 |        10 |       7 |    7 |   -1 |    0 |        2
  13 |        1 |        10 |      15 |   10 |    5 |    1 |        0
  14 |        2 |        10 |      15 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
  15 |        3 |        10 |      15 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
  16 |        4 |        10 |      15 |   15 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  17 |        1 |        15 |       7 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        0
  18 |        2 |        15 |       7 |   10 |    2 |    1 |        1
  19 |        3 |        15 |       7 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        2
  20 |        4 |        15 |       7 |    7 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  21 |        1 |        15 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        0
  22 |        2 |        15 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        1
(22 rows)

Example 2:

Making start vids the same as end vids.

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  ARRAY[7, 10, 15], ARRAY[7, 10, 15]);
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         7 |      10 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         7 |      10 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
   3 |        3 |         7 |      10 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
   4 |        4 |         7 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        3
   5 |        5 |         7 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        4
   6 |        1 |         7 |      15 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        0
   7 |        2 |         7 |      15 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
   8 |        3 |         7 |      15 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
   9 |        4 |         7 |      15 |   15 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  10 |        1 |        10 |       7 |   10 |    5 |    1 |        0
  11 |        2 |        10 |       7 |   11 |    8 |    1 |        1
  12 |        3 |        10 |       7 |    7 |   -1 |    0 |        2
  13 |        1 |        10 |      15 |   10 |    5 |    1 |        0
  14 |        2 |        10 |      15 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        1
  15 |        3 |        10 |      15 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
  16 |        4 |        10 |      15 |   15 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  17 |        1 |        15 |       7 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        0
  18 |        2 |        15 |       7 |   10 |    2 |    1 |        1
  19 |        3 |        15 |       7 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        2
  20 |        4 |        15 |       7 |    7 |   -1 |    0 |        3
  21 |        1 |        15 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        0
  22 |        2 |        15 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        1
(22 rows)

Example 3:

Manually assigned vertex combinations.

SELECT * FROM pgr_bellmanFord(
  'SELECT id, source, target, cost, reverse_cost FROM edges',
  'SELECT * FROM (VALUES (6, 10), (6, 7), (12, 10)) AS combinations (source, target)');
 seq | path_seq | start_vid | end_vid | node | edge | cost | agg_cost
-----+----------+-----------+---------+------+------+------+----------
   1 |        1 |         6 |       7 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   2 |        2 |         6 |       7 |    7 |   -1 |    0 |        1
   3 |        1 |         6 |      10 |    6 |    4 |    1 |        0
   4 |        2 |         6 |      10 |    7 |    8 |    1 |        1
   5 |        3 |         6 |      10 |   11 |    9 |    1 |        2
   6 |        4 |         6 |      10 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        3
   7 |        5 |         6 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        4
   8 |        6 |         6 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        5
   9 |        1 |        12 |      10 |   12 |   13 |    1 |        0
  10 |        2 |        12 |      10 |   17 |   15 |    1 |        1
  11 |        3 |        12 |      10 |   16 |   16 |    1 |        2
  12 |        4 |        12 |      10 |   15 |    3 |    1 |        3
  13 |        5 |        12 |      10 |   10 |   -1 |    0 |        4
(13 rows)

Ver también

Índices y tablas